Because the Medicare ambulance benefit is a transport benefit, if no transport of a Medicare beneficiary occurs, then there is no Medicare-covered service. In general, if the beneficiary dies before being transported, then no Medicare payment may be made.
Thus, in a situation where the beneficiary dies, whether any payment under the Medicare ambulance benefit may be made depends on the time at which the beneficiary is pronounced dead by an individual authorized by the State to make such pronouncements.
The chart below shows the Medicare payment determination for various air ambulance scenarios in which the beneficiary dies. In each case, the assumption is that the ambulance transport would have otherwise been medically necessary. If the flight is aborted for other reasons, such as bad weather, the Medicare payment determination is based on whether the beneficiary was onboard the air ambulance.
|Air Ambulance Scenarios: Beneficiary Death|
|Time of Death Pronouncement||Medicare Payment Determination|
|Prior to takeoff to point-of-pickup with notice to dispatcher and time to abort the flight.||None. NOTE: This scenario includes situations in which the air ambulance has taxied to the runway, and/or has been cleared for takeoff, but has not actually taken off.)|
|After takeoff to point-of-pickup, but before the beneficiary is loaded.||Appropriate air base rate with no mileage or rural adjustment; use the QL modifier when submitting the claim.|
|After the beneficiary is loaded onboard, but prior to or upon arrival at the receiving facility.||As if the beneficiary had not died.|
A. BLS/ALS Joint Responses
In situations where a BLS entity provides the transport of the beneficiary and an ALS entity provides a service that meets the fee schedule definition of an ALS intervention (e.g., ALS assessment, Paramedic Intercept services, etc.), the BLS supplier may bill Medicare the ALS rate provided that a written agreement between the BLS and ALS entities exists prior to submitting the Medicare claim. Providers/suppliers must provide a copy of the agreement or other such evidence (e.g., signed attestation) as determined by their intermediary or carrier upon request. Contractors must refer any issues that cannot be resolved to the regional office.
Medicare does not regulate the compensation between the BLS entity and the ALS entity. If there is no agreement between the BLS ambulance supplier and the ALS entity furnishing the service, then only the BLS level of payment may be made. In this situation, the ALS entity’s services are not covered, and the beneficiary is liable for the expense of the ALS services to the extent that these services are beyond the scope of the BLS level of payment.
B. Ground to Air Ambulance Transports
When a beneficiary is transported by ground ambulance and transferred to an air ambulance, the ground ambulance may bill Medicare for the level of service provided and mileage from the point of pickup to the point of transfer to the air ambulance.